Mongolian Nature & Wildlife

    The Wildlife of Mongolia consists of unique flora and fauna in eight habitats dictated by the diverse and harsh climatic conditions found in the country. These habitats are flood plains, forests, tundra, taiga forests in the north, salty marshes, fresh-water sources, desert steppes at the centre, and semi deserts, as well as the famous Gobi Desert in the south, the fourth largest desert in the world.

    About 90 percent of this landlocked country is covered by deserts or pastures with extreme climatic conditions; this desert area is the largest temperate grassland habitat. Fauna reported in the wild consists of 139 mammal species, 448 species of birds (including 331 migratory and 119 resident birds), 76 species of fish, 22 reptile species, and six species of amphibians. Grass land and shrubland covers 55 percent of the country, forest covers only 6 percent in the steppe zone, 36 percent is covered by desert vegetation, and only 1 percent is used for human habitation and agricultural purposes, such as growing crops. The floral vegetation in the Eastern Steppe temperate consists of grassland (the largest of its type in the world).

    Flora

    The flora in the wildlife area of Mongolia is of pasture lands in three-fourths of the country, which is the main source of feed for the large stock of livestock in the country. Forests and barren

    deserts cover the remaining area in the country. Specifically, there are four vegetation zones. Coniferous forest forms the taiga region of the northern areas with alpine noted at higher zones. In the mountain forest-steppe zone vegetation is dense on the northern slopes; Siberian larches (grows up to 45 meters (148 ft.) height), Siberian cedars, interspersed with spruces, pines (Siberian and Scotch pines), and firs along with deciduous vegetation of white and brown birches, aspens, and poplars are noted to dominate the area. The inter-montane basins, wide river valleys and the southern slopes of the mountains have steppe vegetation. Pastureland have a cover of feather grass, couch grass, wormwood, and several species fodder plants. In the semi desert and Gobi Desert areas, the vegetation is scanty but just adequate for the camels, sheep and goat populations to feed on and survive. Saxaul (xerophytic) a drought-tolerant species is also noted and it provides for the firewood requirements of the people. Elms and poplars are also found near springs and underground water resources. Saxaul shrubs dominate the deserts and they anchor the sand dunes and prevent erosion. It grows to height of 4 m, over a period of 100 years, with very dense wood which sinks in water. Rhododendrons bloom with red, yellow and white wild flowers and edelweiss is also reported. More than 200 plant species are reported to be under threat.

    Fauna

    There are 139 mammal species found in Mongolia, and 448 species of birds.

    Mammals

    Mongolia has a number of large mammals, including gray wolves and Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica), as well as more endangered species such as the wild Bactrian camel (Camelus ferus), the 

    snow leopard (Uncia uncia), the Gobi bear, (rarest and unique to the desert region), the takhi (both wild and domestic types of horses) and the Asiatic wild ass (the largest numbers in the world are found in the Gobi Desert).

    The saiga antelope, once a common species, has been reduced by pressures including hunting, livestock grazing, and high Chinese medicinal value, with the Mongolian subspecies reaching a critically endangered level, with fewer than 5,000 individuals left in the wild. The wild horse, in particular, had almost become extinct (not seen for more than three decades) and was therefore reintroduced from captive sources. Other species of mammals reported include: argali (Ovis ammon) (in the rocky mountains of the Gobi desert), common wolf, Mongolian saiga (Saiga tatarica mongolica), musk deer (Moschus moschiferus), Pallas's cat (Felis manul) or manul, black tailed gazelle (Gazelle subgutturosa), stone martin (Martes foina), and wild cats in the Altai ecoregion; wild boar (Sus scrofa nigipes), red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer in the forest areas and muskrat, red fox, steppe fox, and sable in the forest and steppe margin areas.

    Under the WWF-Mongolia conservation programme (a four-year project), snow leopards, Altai argali sheep and saiga antelope and gazelle of eastern Mongolia are receiving special attention. The Zoological Society of London has taken interest to conserve Bactrian camel, long-eared jerboa (Euchoreutes naso), Mongolian gerbil ("meriones unguiculatus") and saiga antelope.

    Birds

    The bird species in Mongolia include several that are very large; six species of cranes present account for half the numbers in the world. There are 22 endangered species of birds including

     

    hawks, falcons, buzzards, cranes and owls. Though 

    cranes are not hunted for superstitious reasons, they are still threatened due to habitat degradation

    and only 5000 breeding pairs are reported, mostly in Dornod’s Mongol Duguur Strictly Protected Area. In eastern Mongolia, a critically endangered species of crane is the white naped crane (Tsen togoru). Overall there are 469 species of birds, including species which are also domesticated and linked to the wild ancestral species. Of these, 330 species are migratory and 119 are seen in Mongolia throughout the year. Species identified include: golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), lammergeyer 

    (Gypaetus barbatus), spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia), Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), great white egrets (Egretta alba), whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus), great black-headed gulls (Larus ichthyatus), black storks (Ciconia nigra), swan goose (Anser cygnoides) and snowcock (Tetraogallus altaicus) or Altain ular. 

    Aquatic life

    The rivers and lakes of Mongolia are reported to 

    have 76 species of fish, including trout, grayling (khadran; the Arctic grayling and the Mongolian grayling can be widely found in Mongolian rivers), roach lenok (zebge), Siberian sturgeon (khilem), pike(tsurkhai), perch (algana), Altai osman (endemic to the rivers of Mongolia) and the taimen (a huge Siberian salmon relative, growing up to 1.5 m in length and 50 kg in weight). 

Trip to mongolia
  • Best Seller Tours
    Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book
  • Best Seller Tours
    Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book
  • Best Seller Tours
    Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book
  • Best Seller Tours
    Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's specimen book